Complete Time Line of Oneida History - UNDER CONSTRUCTION JUN 2010

1634 - Bogert description of Mohawk/Oneida Villages/Way of Life

1700-1800s - Handsome Lake

1702 - Queen Anne of England, through the Society for the Propagation of the Faith, sends missionaries to work among the five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy in New York State.  (100th Anniversary of the Stone Church booklet, July 26, 1986)

July 1775 - The Continental Congress sent an address to the Six Nations urging them to remain neutral in the struggle with England.

May 1776 - Continental Congress deemed it necessary to procure assistance of the Indians against the British.  Attractive remunerative offers were made.  No material aid, however, resulted.

1777 - An article was incorporated in the New York State Constitution declaring invalid all purchases of territory from the Natives since October 17, 1774 and forbidding cession in the future without permission from the State.

 July 9, 1778 -  The Articles of Confederation were adopted by the Continental Congress

1783 - Treaty of Paris - End of the Revolutionary War

1783 - When the agents of Congress were in the process of negotiating the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, New York deliberately endeavored to thwart their success.

1784 - Fort Stanwix Treaty - guaranteed territorial integrity of the Oneida Nation.

1785 - Fort Herkimer Treaty - Oneidas sold a portion of their land between the Unadilla and Chenago Rivers from the source of the rivers to where they empty into the Sesquehanna River for $11,000.  The land given to the Tuscarora was included in the cession.  Oneidas lose 300,000 acres.

Sept 17, 1787 - Adoption of the U.S. Constitution

1788 - Fort Schuyler Treaty (formerly Fort Stanwix).  Oneidas cede all lands in New York to the state.  Approximately 5 ½ million acres.  They reserved 300,000 acres in Madison and Oneida Counties for themselves.  New York paid the Oneidas $2,000 in cash and $2,000 in clothing, $1,000 in provisions and $500 to build grist and saw mills.  In addition, New York promised an annuity of $600

1789 - Fort Herkimer Treaty

1784-1871 - Treaty Era, Mission schools were present in Wisconsin.  Boarding schools existed in Tomah, Wittenberg, Keshena (St. Michael’s), and Bad River (St. Mary’s)Removal started before 1785, the year of the Revolutionary War.  Tribes would be moved to the west, by Oklahoma.

1790 - The articles as finally adopted gave Congress the sole and exclusive power of “regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indian, not members of any of the States, provided that the legislative right of any State within its own limits be not infringed or violated

1790 - Adoption of the Non-Intercourse Act.

1793 - Adoption of the Non-Intercourse Act.

Nov 11, 1794 - Pickering Treaty - guaranteed territorial integrity of the Oneida Nation - provided annuity to assist Oneidas and other members of the Six Nations.

Dec 2, 1794 - Treaty noting the loyalty of the Oneidas and Tuscaroras during the Revolution and gave a grant of $5,000 to settle all claims.

1795 - Oneida sold a portion of their land on the south and east side of the Lake Oneida but reserving lake rights as well as one half mile sections along the north shore.  Price $2,952 and an annuity of $2, 952 based on 3 cents per acre

1798 - Oneidas sold all the land from the last purchase “...running northerly to a buttonwood tree marked...on the south side...with three notches” then 1 ½ miles along the Main Genesse Road with a breadth of three miles on the south side and one mile on the north side plus 1,280 acres - for $200 cash and an annuity of $700

1802 - Another sale of land joining previously purchased sections, $900 cash and a #300 annuity.  Split into the Christian and Pagan Party

1805 - Oneidas divided remaining reservation into two parts - Christian (Skenandoah) and Pagan (Cornelius)

1807 - Albany - Christian Party ceded a portion of their land for an annual rent of 6% of seventy-five cents per acre.  A sum of $600 was advanced to the Christian Party

1809 - Albany - Pagan Party rented land for annual rate of 6% based on value of 56 cents per acre.  The state advanced $1,000

1810 - Albany - Christian Party sold land for $800 and an annuity based on 6% of 50 cents per acre.

1811 - Albany - Christian Party sold another tract for $600 plus a 5% annuity based on an acre price of 50 cents.

1811 - Oneida - Parties not specified - Oneidas relinquished all claim to Stockbridge and Brothertown reserves for $2,400.

1814 - Eleazor Williams back from the war settles as pastor to the Oneidas

Mar 3, 1815 - Christian Party released several acres at $1 per acre.

1815-16 - Second Christian party formed from most of the Pagan Party

1817 - Albany - Second Christian Party (formerly called Pagan Party) exchanged land with New York, the State receiving 1,356 acres and giving 678 acres plus $1,200

Mar 27, 1817 - Christian Party sold 600 acres to obtain funds to build a church

1817 - Reverend _______Williams proposes western removal to Green Bay

1817-25 - The year of the Erie Canal Project.  The United States government needed the territory of the Oneida Tribe in New York to complete the project and to hook up the channel.

1821 - Reverend _____? Williams who originally from Michigan and made a treaty between the Oneida and Menominee/HoChunk.  The Oneidas purchase land from the Menominees and Hochunks by Treaty: lands to be located on both sides of the Fox river for a consideration of $2,000

1821 - Williams goes to Green Bay; acts as pastor to Garrison at Fort Howard

1822 - Oneidas make additional purchase for $3,000 and confirmed by President ____the following year.

1822 - First party of Oneidas settles in Duck Creek, Wisconsin. (100th Anniversary of the Stone Church booklet, July 26, 1986)

1822 - The Menominee negotiated 9 million acres of land to the Oneida Tribe in Wisconsin.  The Oneida Tribe did not experience forcible removal since the Tribe negotiated.  Forcible removal means to use the Army to round up the Indian people to relocate

1822 - First Christian Party of over 400 settle in northern part of the reservation (Daniel Bread leader

1822-40 -  Eleazor Williams papers.  Eleazor Williams took money from the War Department, the Episcopal Church and the Ogden Land Company to move the Oneida’s west.  Eleazor was the facilitator due to his personal interest for money.  He was under the guise of a catechist, fluent in the mohawk language.Episcopal church records diocese in Fond du Lac.  Eleazor Williams married Madeline Jourdan

1823 - President Monroe sanctions Oneida purchases

1823 - Second Christian party arrives with over 200 people led by Neddy Otsisquette and settles in southern part of the reservation

1823-41 - The first group of Oneida people moved to Wisconsin in 1823.  The last group of Oneida people moved to Wisconsin in 1841

1824 - Albany - First Christian Party sold two tracts of land at Oneida Castle.  First tract - $350 and an annuity of $240.  Second tract - $800 and an annuity of $60

1824-80 - Microfilm of letters to Commissioner and Secreatry of Interior.  These letters were written by the Indian agents to the Commissioner and Secretary of Interior.  If the Tribe wanted to build buildings or cut timber, the agents had to write the letter to obtain permission.

1825 - The little, log Hobart Church is erected, with Eleazer Williams as missionary.  This is the first church erected in Wisconsin and all of the Northwest.  (100th Anniversary of the Stone Church booklet, July 26, 1986)

1825 - The first Holy Apostles Epsicopal Church was built in Wisconsin and all the Northwest territory

1826 - Albany - Second Christian Party sold more land at $3.00 an acre.

1827 - Treaty at Butte des Morts (Wisconsin) between the U.S. and the Menominees defrauding Oneidas who were not participants in the treaty

1829 - Albany - First Christian Party sold land for $1,500, in addition New York was to pay a 6% annuity to support a teacher at Green Bay, Wisconsin.

1829 - Albany - First Christian Party received a $1,000 for the sale of additional land

1830 - Congress passed the Indian Removal Act through President Andrew jackson.  The Removal Act wanted Tribes to move from the East to the West of the Mississippi

1830 - Albany - Orchard Party sold land for $1,200

Feb 8, 1831 - Oneidas receive 500,000 acres from the Menominees

1831-38 - February 8, 1831, the original treaty, signed with the Menominee Tribe, nine (9) million acres, was reduced to 500,000 acres due to the Stambaugh Treaty.  The Stambaugh Treaty reduced the holding to 500,000 for the Oneida, Brothertown and Stockbridge

1834 - Albany - Orchard Party sold more land for $1,400

1837 - Albany - Orchard Party sold one acre “being the land on which the church or school house stands” for “such sum as may be obtained for the same...after deducting there from the costs and expense of such sale.”

Mar12, 1837 - Oneida was established as Duck Creek in Brown County, but the name was changed to Oneida on August 5, 1850.  Originally known as Duck Creek, Wisconsin in Brown County, the name was changed to Oneida, Wisconsin on August 5, 1850.  (Post Office letter dated June 23, 1976)

Jan 3, 1838 - Buffalo Creek Treaty The treaty gave 1.8 million acres of land to move the Oneidas to Kansas City, Missouri.  5,000 acres of land was in Canada.  Some of the Wisconsin Oneida’s moved to Kansas City

Jan 3, 1838 - 1838 CensusCounted 654 Oneida People.  A formula was created to give 100 acres per Oneida tribal member.  The total land base is 65,430 acres

Jan 15, 1838 - Treaty of Buffalo Creek - Oneidas ceded certain lands in Wisconsin reducing reserve to 65,436 acres.  They also ceded lands in New York and agreed to immigrate to land set aside in the Kansas Territory.

Feb 3, 1838 - Oneida TreatyReduction in Land (500,000 to 65,430 acres)Established 65,430 acre boundary of the Oneida Reservation (7 Stat.566) Treaty of Buffalo Creek - Reservation is reduced to 65,436 acres.  8 x 12 square miles, Census 654 Oneidas.  Christian Party - 448 persons and Orchard Party - 206 persons.  200 homeless Oneidas remained in New York with no allotment in Wisconsin, Canada or Kansas City

1839 - The frame church is built to replace the little, log church.  (100th Anniversary of the Stone Church booklet, July 26, 1986)

1840 - The Oneida Chiefs from Wisconsin wrote an invitation letter to the 200 homeless Oneidas in New York.  The Wisconsin Oneidas promised land and a place to live.  The Reverend Woodman led the Oneida’s from New York to Wisconsin.  The homeless Oneidas were not accepted.  They did not have a place to live.  This went on for 50 years.  The homeless Indians lived near the Town of Osborn and the Town of Seymour.

1841 - Third Party (remnant of the Orchard Party of Second Chrisitan) arrive with 44 Oneidas near present site of Little Chute area and later moved to southern part of the reservation

1841 - Prince de Jonville visits Eleazor Williams at Green Bay, Wisconsin.  Williams claimed to be the Lost Dauphin of France

1842 - Last members of Oneida split and a portion sold their land and moved from New York to either Canada or Wisconsin

1845 - The New York census

1846 - Albany - Treaty made with the state with representatives of New York, Wisconsin and Canadian Oneidas to dispose of the Missionary Lot in Westmoreland, Oneida County, a total of 22.5 acres

From 1785 to 1846 a total of 26 treaties were made by which the State of New York acquired almost all of the Oneida lands.  A majority of the Oneidas moved to either Canada or Wisconsin.  A few moved to Kansas.  Some Oneidas chose to remain in New York

1848 - Wisconsin becomes a state

Aug 5, 1850 - The Duck Creek name was changed to Oneida

1853 - Women’s Guild is formed by Reverend and Mrs. Edward A. Goodnough.  (100th Anniversary of the Stone Church booklet, July 26, 1986)

1858 - Eleazor Williams died in New York

1860-80 - John Archiquette diary was written.  John Archiquette was the captain of the Oneida ? Police Department.  The diary notes who died, who cut trees, who was buried, who was born, the epidemics.  His son is Oscar Archiquette

1870 - The work began to build a larger church made out of stone.  The Holy Apostles Church on the Oneida reservation was built with 300 cords of dolomite. (limestone)  (2,880 tons of stone).  Oneidas begin to quarry stone for new stone church.  (100th Anniversary of the Stone Church booklet, July 26, 1986)

1871 - Economic factors instead of treaties.U.S. no longer makes treaties.        Affairs handled through negotiation

1871 - This year was known for two major fires.  The Peshtigo Fire and the Chicago Fire.  The Peshtigo Fire destroyed the entire town and 2,000 lives were lost.  Some of the Oneida and Menominee property was damaged as well.   In order to rebuild Peshtigo and Oneida, timber was needed.  The Oneida reservation had plenty of White Pine to rebuild both cities.  Since the title of the Oneida land belonged to the United States Federal Government, the government had the ability to sell the timber to Peshitigo. This is why Oneida could not sell their timber until the Dawes Allotment Act of 1887

1872 - The Hampton Boarding School in Hampton, Virginia began accepting Indian students.  The Federal Government created a Civilization Fund which awarded $10,000 to build boarding schools.  The closest boarding school was located in Tomah, Wisconsin

1871-80 - 1,728 Oneida People according to the Census

1884 - Sisters of the Holy Nativity of Fond du Lac come to Oneida.  (100th Anniversary of the Stone Church booklet, July 26, 1986

1885 - Major crimes in boarding schools, Census, Civil War Papers, Pension Records

1886 - The Holy Apostles Church was dedicated

1886 - Convent building was constructed.  (100th Anniversary of the Stone Church booklet, July 26, 1986)

1887 - New stone church is consecrated by Bishop Brown.  (100th Anniversary of the Stone Church booklet, July 26, 1986)

Feb 8, 1887 - Henry Lauren Dawes, senator from Massachusetts, was the author of the Dawes Allotment Act.   It was on this date that the Dawes Allotment Act was passed.   (Dawes Act)Protest signed by over 800 Oneidas against the Allotment Act.  Dawes Allotment Act passed by President Benjamin Harrison.  Divided tribal property into small parcels of 160 acres or less.

1888 - Whipple Report

1891 - John C. Hart set aside 80 acres (located at the Norbert Hill Center) for the Oneida Boarding School

1892 - Allotment of the Oneida Reservation by Exectuive Order under directive of general provisions of the Dawes Act.  All land was allotted except for 85 acres which was retained for “school purposes.”





Programs: VISTA workers 1960-70’s, NYC workers 1967-1972


Infrastructure and Development - Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) for grants, Community Action programs (CAPS) and HUD for housing, Site 1

1965    Oneida Headstart Program Begins (in Parish Hall)

1973    Oneida Nation Memorial Building opens (Civic Center)

1976    Anna John Nursing Home

1976    Oneida Museum

1976    Oneida Bingo Operations begin at the Civic Center

1977    Oneida Smoke Shops/ One Stops

1978    American Indian Religious Freedom Act, Native American Church

1980    First Kaliwiyo held here in Wisconsin

1983    Irene Moore Activity Center Opens

1986    Economic Development: Roadway Inn, then the Radisson

1986    First Longhouse Ceremony (Midwinter) in Oneida Wisconsin

1986    Supreme Court rules on land claims suit, Oneida still owns the land.

1988    Indian Gaming Act

1993    Oneida Casino Grand Opening

1994    Oneida Nation Elementary School (Turtle School) Opens

1995    Oneida Completes Bay Bank Project

1995    Oneida Airport Road Daycare Opens

1996    Oneida Law Enforcement Center