Important Dates Relating to Oneida Tribal Land and Sovereignty in Wisconsin
THE HISTORY OF DIVISION OF LAND MANAGEMENT
1821 Oneida’s movement to Wisconsin
August 18, 1821 and September 23, 1822, the Oneida and other emigrant New York tribes acquired an interest in some 7,480,000 acres of Wisconsin land from the Menominee and the Winnebago.
1831 Treaty with the MenomineeMenominee ceded 500,000 acres to the United States for the use of the New York Indians including the Oneida.
This treaty also contained a cession of other Menominee lands directly to the United States.
1838 The Buffalo Creek Treaty
- The Oneida Tribe ceded most of the lands obtained from the Menominee, retaining approximately 100 acres per person, therefore reducing the once-vast Oneida lands in Wisconsin.
- Established the Oneida Reservation in Wisconsin
- Oneida Reservation was approximately 65,400 acres, all the land was held in trust for the Oneida Tribe of Wisconsin by the United States of America.
1887 Dawes Allotment Act
- This act required the government to partition the tribal lands into individual tracts called allotments.
- There were approximately 1,530 allotments assigned to Oneida tribal members.
- The act also authorized the government to negotiate with Indian tribes for the sale of all tribal lands remaining after allotments were made to individual members; Oneida allotted all of its reservation.
1902 Dead Indian Act (Sale of Allotted Lands by Heirs)
- Established a procedure where the adult heirs of a deceased allottee could sell their heirship land with approval of the Secretary of the Interior
- Secretary of the Interior could issue fee patents to the heirs as a group or otherwise remove the restriction.
- The estate could be physically partitioned among the heirs and either trust or fee patents issued to them individually.
- The estate could be retained by the superintendent and leased for the benefit of the heirs.
- The estate could be sold under Government supervision and the proceeds distributed among the heirs.
1906 Burke Act
- Allowed the Secretary of the Interior to determine competency and to issue fee patents, making land taxable for any Indian allottee that was found to be competent and capable of managing his or her affairs. This did not require the Indian allottee to approve, or have knowledge of the fee simple patent being issued.
- The Secretary of the Interior was authorized to determine the legal heirs of the deceased and issue patents in fee simple to the heirs for the land. Or, the Secretary could sell the land and issue a patent to the purchasers and pay the net proceeds to the heirs.
- Act amends the General Allotment Act by granting citizenship to Indian allottees after a patent in fee simple was granted to them.
1917 Trust Period Ends
- Conclusion of the 25 year trust period for the allotments.
- By this time the vast majority of the allotments had passed out of the Oneida Indians hands to the non-Indians.
1934 Indian Reorganization Act (IRA)
- United States passed the IRA in an attempt to secure new rights for Native Americans on reservations.
- It allowed the Oneida people to reform its government under IRA Constitution; this is still the present form of government.
- Oneida Executive Committee (later changed to the current Business Committee) was established as the legislative body of the Oneida Tribe.
- One incentive for being recognized as an I.R.A. Tribe was that the United States promised to purchase lost land back for the Tribal Government.
- United States purchased approximately 1,900 acres of land for the Oneidas within the Reservation.
1941 Oneida Land Committee
- Executive Committee approved to form the Oneida Land Committee.
- Oneida Land Committee currently is known as the Oneida Land Commission.
- The Commission is responsible for making policies for Division of Land Management.
- They oversee Land Acquisition, Leasing, Loan approval, probates and other issues relating to Tribal Lands.
1977 GTC approved to establish a Tribal Land Office
- Resolution was passed to establish the Oneida Tribal Land Office and hire adequate staff to maintain all land records for the Tribe.
- New Land Office was opened April 16, 1977.
- One employee was hired to maintain all tribal land records and to reacquire the Oneida Reservation lands.
- This office is currently known as The Division of Land Management, with 26 full-time employees.
1980 Land Commission expansion
- Commission went from three (3) members to seven (7).
- Land Commission is an elected body.
- Oneida Land Committee and Land Office were delegated the responsibility to administer Tribal Lands including residential, agriculture and commercial leases and assignments.
1982 Land Acquisition Program
- GTC approved a self-funded program, allocating 30 cents from every carton of cigarettes sold be applied to land acquisition.
- By the end of 1982 the tribe owned 2,382.35 acres of land.
1982 Direct Real Estate and Mortgage Program (DREAM)
- DREAM program was originally developed, when the Oneida tribe purchased a large parcel of land with a house.
- This house was offered for rent with an Option to purchase agreement between the occupant and the Land Office.
1986 Tribal Loan Credit Program (TLC)
- TLC program provided Tribal Members with a 20% down- payment, low interest loan.
- By the end of 1987 the Tribe owned 3,412.125 acres of land.
1987 Land Acquisition Plan
- The first Land Acquisition Plan was approved and contributed a higher allocation to the land acquisition fund and accelerated purchases.
- Plan provided a rational method and steps of implementation for land acquisition.
- Plan also included recommendations for adoption of future strategies that will contribute to the successful growth and diversification of tribal resources.
1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act was passed
- Era of tremendous growth in revenues and personnel.
- Land Management’s incentive to begin purchasing commercial buildings.
- Land Management moved to the current location on Airport Road.
- Land Management staff was approximately 20 employees when they moved.
1989 Commercial Lease to Non-Oneida Business
- The first commercial lease to a non-Oneida business was made to Oak Ridge Plaza, Inc.
- The company developed the shopping centers Festival Foods, Wal-Mart and Sam’s Club.
1992 Tribal Home Repair – Improvement Loan Program (THRIL)
- The THRIL program was started and targeted those who owned homes that were in need of renovation and repair.
- Provided a home improvement loan with minimal qualifications and a very low interest rate.
1993 Direct Real Estate and Mortgage Program (DREAM)
- DREAM program was enhanced.
- Residential homes were purchased by the Oneida Tribe and sold to Tribal Members on an “as is” basis after deduction of the land value.
- The Oneida Tribe retains ownership of the land.
- Program decreases the purchase price and makes the mortgage more affordable for homeowners.
1995 Oneida Veterans Loan Program
- Veterans loans established, it provide the opportunity for the Veteran’s to receive 100% assistance.
- This program assisted Oneida Veterans with purchasing an existing home, to build, to repair and to maintain the property they own.
- Guidelines for the veterans loans are slightly different then the regular TLC & TRIL programs.
1996 Self Governance
- Oneida Tribe exercises its right to become self-governance.
- Oneida Tribe signs a self- governance compact with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, which delegates all Realty Services to the Oneida Tribe’s Land Office currently known as Division of Land Management.
- Business Committee passed Real Property Law; an Ordinance that provides regulations & procedures for the transfer, control & management of the territory within the exterior boundaries of the Oneida Reservation.
- By the end of 1996 the Tribe owned 9,932.146 acres of land.
1997 Oneida Nation Register of Deeds
- Became operational with the first recording. Register of Deeds provides a land database system to records land transactions in support of the Oneida Real Property Law and the Oneida Self-governance compact.
- Addition was added to Division of Land Management including a conference room and a fire proof file room.
- Oneida Business Committee adopted the Condominium Ordinance.
- Creating a form of ownership of property and housing that did not exist within the Oneida Tribe, which allows greater access to affordable housing and home ownership.
1998 GTC approved the 2020 Vision Acquisition Plan
- Long Range Plan in acquisition to enable the Oneida Land Commission to acquire all lands within the original 1838 Oneida Indian Reservation Boundaries of Wisconsin.
- Greater ownership of land within the reservations allows the Oneida Tribe opportunities for greater influence in land use and development within the Reservation.
- Division of Land Management goal is to minimally buy back 51% of the reservation within a period of time.
- At the end of 1998 the tribe owns 10,038 acres of land or 15% of the reservation.
1999 2020 Plan Implemented
- Purchase 1000 acres per year to meet the goal of Tribe ownership of 51% of the reservation by the year 2020.
2000 Electronic Mortgage Accounts
- Financial Accounting System (FAS) software was purchased.
- Loan information was entered into the system.
- System has made loan information tracking and retrieval quick and easy.
- Equity Loans became available.
- Division of Land Management’s website went live.
- By the end of 2000 the Oneida Tribe now owns 11,000 acres of land or 17% of the reservation. Oneida Tribal members own approximately 730 acres of trust land and about 1000 acres in fee land within the reservation.
2001 Tribal Land
- By the end of 2001 the tribe owns approximately 13,962 acres within the reservation.
2002 Balance Acquisition to Benefit Everyone (BABE) Pilot Project
- BABE project was implemented.
- Land Acquisition funds set aside to acquire home and/or land of tribal individual who own fee/trust or undivided interest in land. In turn alleviate the home owner of property taxes and secure additional land base for the Oneida Tribe.
2003 Rail Road
- Oneida Tribe and Fox Valley & Western Ltd signed an Agreement and Mutual Release for most of the Rail Road lands that are located within the Oneida Reservation.
2004 New addition to DOLM
- Addition provided a second fire-proof file room, ten new offices and six cubical work stations.
2004 Midwest Fee to Trust Consortium
- Oneida Tribe entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Bureau of Indian Affairs establishing the Midwest Region Division for the Tribes Fee to Trust Transactions.
- Oneida Tribe, Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community originated the Midwest Region Division of Fee to Trust and planned to provide funding to the Midwest Regional Office.
- With this proposal they could hire extra staff to exclusively process the fee to trust applications.
2005 Midwest Fee to Trust Consortium
- First 25 Fee to Trust Application were submitted to the Bureau of Indian Affairs consisting of approximately 540.16 acres.
2006 Midwest Fee to Trust Consortium
- Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwa of Minnesota joined the Consortium.
2007 OnBase Management System
- The first files were scanned into the new database enabling the employees to view the files from their desk.
- OnBase maintains a high level of security by creating a custom set of rights and privileges for each of the users.
- Land Commission held its first Probate Hearing.
Fee to Trust Consortium Update
- By April 2007 the Oneida Tribe had submitted approximately 229 Fee to Trust Applications consisting of almost 7745 acres to the Bureau of Indian Affairs as part of the Consortium.
- Ho-Chunk of Wisconsin joined the Consortium.
2008 Midwest Fee to Trust Consortium Agreement
- Oneida Tribe entered into a New Memorandum of Understanding with the BIA for the processing of the Tribal fee to trust packages.
2009 Acquired acres
- Acquired the former Catlin property with acquisition funds and NRDA grant monies.
- Acquired 1607 acres which included the Golf Course and the Skenandoah complex.
2010 Land Acquisition Plan 2033
- GTC enacted resolution to provide a stable and adequate budget for the Land Commission and Division of Land Management to meet the goal of re-acquiring 75% of the Oneida Reservation within a 23 year period.
- Sept, 2010 DOLM employees were selected for the Bureau of Indian Affairs Trust Asset Accounting Management System (TAAMS). Which is new program being used by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to manage all of the Trust Assets for various tribes in the US.
2011 Bought 501 Packerland
- The new Oneida One Stop & Market is located here.
- Land Management will be celebrating its 35th Anniversary celebrated at the Annual Open House.
- OnBase files are 100% scanned in as of April 2, 2012
- November 14, 2012 Residential Leasing Specialist made history by encoding the first residential lease into the Bureau of Indian Affairs Trust Asset Accounting Management System (TAAMS).
2013 Tribal Land
- 1ST Virtual Open House posted on the Website
- Employee, Eleanora Smith hit 30 Years of service with DOLM
- By June 2013 the tribe owns approximately 25,042 acres or 39% of the reservation. (25,042 divided by 65,400)
Posted 101013 LAE